What is the difference between manufacturing in the Yangtze River Delta and the manufacturing of the Pearl River Delta?

1 thought on “What is the difference between manufacturing in the Yangtze River Delta and the manufacturing of the Pearl River Delta?”

  1. The Pearl River Delta manufacturing industry originated in the simple processing and manufacturing of the 1970s. Now the manufacturing industry is mainly gathered in textiles, home appliances and electronics industries. The development of the Yangtze River Delta manufacturing accelerated in the 1990s. In the electronic information industry.
    The development momentum of the Yangtze River Delta is obviously better than that of the Pearl River Delta. The main reason is that the Yangtze River Delta has high -tech talents and high -quality labor resources. The rapid development of manufacturing in the southeast coastal region is mainly due to the establishment of an open strategy and the establishment of an external economic method of the region. Compared with other parts of the country, the exteriorization of the southeast coastal manufacturing industry is relatively high. However, in the process of development, the Yangtze River Delta manufacturing industry is more born in the region, and the manufacturing production has a relatively complete industrial chain compared to the Pearl River Delta. Therefore, the exteriorization of the Yangtze River Delta manufacturing industry is lower than that of the Pearl River Delta.
    Since the reform and opening up, the dependence of foreign trade in the two regions has continued to rise, but the foreign trade dependence index of the Pearl River Delta has been much higher than the Yangtze River Delta. There are two reasons behind this phenomenon. First, the intermediate products used in the production of the Yangtze River Delta manufacturing industry are more domestic than the Pearl River Delta. The number of intermediate products is relatively small and has a certain independence. Second, the sales of products produced by the Yangtze River Delta manufacturing industry rely less than that of the Pearl River Delta. Its production is relatively small than the external market than the Pearl River Delta region. At the same time, manufacturing foreign direct investment (FDI), which reflects the degree of exteriorization of the region, accounts for the proportion of fixed asset investment, and the Pearl River Delta has always been higher than the Yangtze River Delta; although the gap between the two regions in this indicator in recent years has narrowed, but it is still There is a relatively stable difference. This shows that the source of investment in the Pearl River Delta manufacturing industry rely more on foreign capital inflows in the form of FDI. When foreign capital inflows decrease, or even foreign business withdrawal, local manufacturing production is more susceptible to impact.
    During the development of the manufacturing industry, the Yangtze River Delta region is more based on the local traditional manufacturing industry, undertake the transfer of foreign industries, and carry out industrial layout and system construction. The Pearl River Delta region mainly accepts the transfer of foreign industries in an "airborne" manner, and it is less effective with the local historical industry foundation. Therefore, the Yangtze River Delta has a relatively obvious "diversity" compared to the Pearl River Delta manufacturing industry, and the professionalism of the Pearl River Delta manufacturing industry is relatively high. The high degree of professionalism in the region also means that the concentration of manufacturing in the Pearl River Delta region is relatively high. ) Therefore, when the external market changes, the Pearl River Delta manufacturing industry is compared to the Yangtze River Delta, and there is no room for choice of diverse industries, and the impact of the impact will be greater.
    This in the southeast coastal region's economy is higher than the national level in the southeast coastal area. At the micro -level, the number of foreign -funded enterprises has continued to increase, and foreign -invested enterprises have become an important driving force for regional economic development. However, the two major regions have obvious differences in the development model of the industry. The Yangtze River Delta mainly dominates economic development in government operation models with endogenous growth and planning management, such as the "Southern Jiangsu Mode" and "Wenzhou Model" formed in the 1980s. The phenomenon of industrial agglomeration "and the" block economy "of Zhejiang has promoted the rapid development of the economy of the Yangtze River Delta region, and established the focus of the Yangtze River Delta manufacturing industry in China and the world. The Pearl River Delta is mainly an exogenous development model led by foreign -funded enterprises. It highlights the use of its location advantage of adjacent to Hong Kong and Macao to form a "front shop and back plant" layout. Essence The manufacturing industry of the Pearl River Delta has almost completely joined the supply chain of multinational companies, becoming an important part of its production system, and cooperates with the trend of transnational company manufacturing to China in the form of OEM processing, financial leasing, overseas listing. The exteriorization of the subject is continuously deepened.
    The challenge is similar to the development of manufacturing in the southeast coastal areas in my country is facing unprecedented dilemma. The causes of these dilemma are both changes in the external environment and deep -level industrial structure problems. However, there are four direct factors. In this regard.
    production costs continue to rise. With the rapid development of manufacturing, the cost of labor, funds, land, etc., and the indirect increase in production costs of national industrial policies, the rise in the production and operation costs of the southeast coastal enterprises began to exceed its profits that can Scope of endurance. These cost factors include: rising labor costs. At present, the "inflection point" of the remaining labor supply and demand of rural areas has been hidden. Although the overall supply is still greater than the demand, the supply and demand is unbalanced in local areas. Enterprises have difficulty recruiting employees in need using the original low wage level. The newly implemented "Labor Contract Law" stipulates that social security forced extraction, holiday compensation, minimum wage standards in various places, employees with low efficiency of labor efficiency, etc., all means that the employment cost of enterprises has begun to increase.
    The land price and land use tax increased, and land costs increased. The state has strictly controlled the supply of construction land, the gap between land supply and land demand has increased, and the demand for rising land prices is strong. The cancellation of the land transfer of the land and the land use of the land of industries and other types of enterprises, and the oligopoly supply and the demand for multiple demand, which has also continued to rise in land prices. The development of the southeast coast has been developing for decades, and the use of land space can be greatly reduced.
    This costs rising. Although the monetary policy of the financial crisis is relatively loose from tightly from tightly to relatively loose, the current policies are more suitable for national key construction projects and state -owned large and medium -sized enterprises. Most private SMEs are still in difficulty in financing. Channel financing will inevitably affect the capital cost of the enterprise, especially enterprises with high debt ratios in the asset structure, which has caused financial expenses to greatly reduce the normal profit of the enterprise.
    The raw material costs increase. The marketization of my country's resource product prices has not been fully in place, crude oil and refined oil prices are upside down, coal and electricity prices are upside down, water resources are low, and the pricing of some mineral resources does not fully reflect the supply and demand relationship. Although the prices of some resource products have been influenced by the international market, the cost of energy and raw materials for enterprises has generally increased significantly compared to before.
    The transportation costs increase. Although my country's transportation conditions have been greatly improved, so far, railway capacity is still insufficient, highway networks are underdeveloped, and oil prices have generally risen. Domestic logistics companies are too small and scattered, and there are few companies using modern circulation technology, and their circulation efficiency is low. Data show that the average logistics cost of developed countries is 10%, while the average logistics cost of China is doubled.
    The cost of improvement and maintenance of the environment. According to the relevant data of the National Environmental Protection Agency, my country's 10,000 yuan GDP energy consumption level is 3 to 11 times that of developed countries. At present, the carrying capacity of China's ecological environment has been near the limit. Under the pressure of relevant national environmental protection policies, the environmental costs of the operation of enterprises will gradually increase.
    This demand declined in the southeast coastal region, most of the Chinese manufacturing industry belongs to the low -end links in the world's production and trade system, and developed countries represented by the United States and Europe are the leaders and controller of the entire trade. China's overall growth has great correlation with its external demand. Therefore, when the consumer market in the United States and Europe changes, it directly affects China's manufacturing industry, especially the deceleration of the US economic growth will lead to a decline in consumption and import demand, thereby directly impacting the development of China's manufacturing industry.
    The import and export trade in the two major regions of the southeast coast accounts for 2/3 of the total national trade. Its manufacturing export is the main driving force of China's economic growth, and the demand stability of the external market is necessary. factor. If the demand for external markets slows and the growth rate of external economic growth will decline, investment and net exports in the southeast coast will decrease sharply, and domestic consumption atrophy caused by changes in external economic changes will also reduce the overall size of the domestic market in the southeast coastal area. To a certain extent, it is a dual market blow to its manufacturing development.
    The advantage of the labor cost of foreign competitors began to highlight the two major development barriers of the rising cost of manufacturing and the shrinking consumer market. The decrease in the labor cost of competitors in foreign manufacturing has become an important roadblock in the development of manufacturing in the southeast coast of my country. Essence Compared with the main competitors and regions, manufacturing labor costs in the southeast coastal areas have no longer existing or very weak. Because of this, since 2007, some foreign companies in the southeast coastal areas in my country have begun to move to Southeast Asia, South Asia and other countries.
    The appreciation of the RMB exchange rate Due to the decline of the world economy, the local currency exchange rate of India, Southeast Asian countries, and Brazil has entered a depreciation channel. The sharp depreciation of these countries' currencies and the stable appreciation of the RMB in my country have formed a sharp contrast, which greatly reduces the price competitiveness of China's export products, which has adversely affected the competition for manufacturing exports in the southeast coast.
    The above analysis, on the surface, the difficulty of encountering in the southeast coastal manufacturing industry in my country is the impact of external demand and external opponent competition. However, from a deeper perspective, the structural problems of manufacturing in the southeast coastal areas are the root causes of their predicament. The so -called structural problem is mainly manifested in the development of industrial development too much depends on foreign capital, the industry is at low end of the global value chain and insufficient technological innovation capabilities, thereby sustainable development and weak resistance. Therefore, the manufacturing industry in the southeast coastal areas in my country must carry out strategic adjustment and structural transformation. The goal is to develop a modern new manufacturing industry with high -tech, high value -added, low consumption and low pollution.
    The implementation of characteristic transformation and upgrading strategies In view of the many differences in the outbound, professional, and enterprise nature of the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. Development characteristics are implemented with different strategic choices. In particular, it is necessary to clarify industrial positioning, find the path to upgrade, and enhance regional cooperation.
    Procked the strategic positioning of regional industries in the Yangtze River Delta regional industry category and the developed industrial development. It is the largest comprehensive industrial area in China. High -tech industries are also prominent. In recent years, the changes in the situation of international industries and a new round of economic growth in the international industry have been adapted to the situation in the Yangtze River Delta as a key goal for the development of regional industries in a timely manner. Shanghai proposes to give priority to the development of advanced manufacturing and modern logistics. Zhejiang will build advanced manufacturing bases, and Jiangsu will build an international manufacturing base.
    This manufacturing industry is mainly guided by processing trade. Most of the products are labor -intensive industries, and have become one of the world's largest production and export bases for electronics and daily consumer goods. In order to solve the problems of low levels of the local real estate industry, "light" structure, large external orientation, and not strong industrial root causes brought about, the Pearl River Delta region vigorously improves the local investment environment, increases enterprise R

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